The Simplicity of Skin Care 

ThirdAge - Jan 10 11:20 PM
Most experts say skin condition is based on a simple formula. "About half of skin quality is genetic, and the other half is lifestyle and environmental factors," said Palos Verdes Peninsula [Ca.] cosmetologist Sandy Ormsby. "Healthy skin is beautiful skin.
Monterey County promotes Folic Acid Week 
The Salinas Californian - Jan 09 9:16 AM
Monterey County health officials are promoting Folic Acid Awareness Week to educate women, especially Latinas, about the benefits of taking a folic acid supplement during pregnancy.

Pope speaks out as Italy mulls recognition of gay couples - 9 minutes ago
VATICAN CITY -- Pope Benedict XVI on Thursday reiterated his opposition to civil unions as Italy's government prepares to grant legal recognition to unmarried couples regardless of sexual orientation.

Super Swing Golf: Golfing With Cops, Fairies, and Punks 
The Village Voice - Jan 10 3:56 PM
Early in his classic Ben Hogan's Five Lessons, the legendary golfer uses capital letters as if to scream at you like a football coach. The grail in golf, he says, is "A CORRECT, POWERFUL, REPEATING SWING. This can be stated categorically: it is utterly impossible for any golfer to play good golf without a swing that will repeat." These days, it may be impossible for a player to play good golf ...

Passengers Injured In Multi-Vehicle Wreck At Universal Orlando 
WESH via Yahoo! News - Jan 11 3:17 AM
A couple of people were injured in a multi-vehicle wreck on Wednesday.

‘Oblivion’ named top game of 
The Daily Beacon - Jan 10 2:01 PM
For some people, 2006 was just another year of college. For others, it was a year of many great video games.

Column: What it means to be an American? - Jan 10 3:37 AM
'Whatever' I thought, best describes the spirit of being truly American.

SAHA Tenants: City Must Repair Our Dream Homes 
KSAT via Yahoo! News - 2 hours, 4 minutes ago
First-time home buyers part of a city lease-to-own program said the San Antonio Housing Authority provided them homes that are beginning to fall apart and the city has ignored their requests to fix them.

Sunday Mirror - Jan 10 9:30 PM
LONDON pubs can expect to suffer heavy losses as jazz babe Amy "Wino" Winehouse has announced she's stopped drinking alcohol - for now.\ After a string of boozy blunders, she says: "I'm not drinking at the moment. I'm detoxing." We give it till the weekend.

Razing of 2 houses postponed 
The Flint Journal - 46 minutes ago
DAVISON TWP. - The demolition of two vacant homes was delayed Monday while the township's attorney tries one more time to get voluntary compliance. The Township Board did not vote on a request for Township Attorney, David L. Lattie to seek a court ruling to allow the township to raze the two houses.

Artist's work hangs in neighbor's homes 
Chicago Sun-Times - Jan 11 2:23 AM
Everybody in Fred Groh's Lake Zurich neighborhood knew the artist and will remember him by his landscapes and portraits on their walls. A commercial artist by trade, he also produced paintings, portraits, landscapes, miniatures, posters and dioramas.

Inside the mind of a serial killer  
Indian Express via Yahoo! India News - Jan 10 12:48 PM
Modern investigators lack the education to probe the dark recesses of a serial killer's mind. What investigators go by is the abnormal behaviour of a person. In fact even the law per se limits the liability and culpability of criminals, going generally by overt acts of commission. Of course the mens rea (guilty mind) is the hallmark of all crime. Yet it may not be present in a criminal with ...

Tiger Woods deal drives Bright Things higher 
ShareCast via Yahoo! UK & Ireland Finance - 2 hours, 25 minutes ago
Bright Things rallied Thursday after it signed a licensing deal with Electronic Arts for the rights to develop an interactive DVD game based on Tiger Woods PGA TOUR 07.

Judge apologizes for comment about jurors with 'big lips' 
WQAD Moline - 1 hour, 58 minutes ago
WATERLOO, Iowa A Black Hawk County judge has apologized for making a comment about jurors with big lips -- a reference she denies was racially charged.

Burrows has broken toes 
Vancouver Province - Jan 10 5:13 AM
Alexandre Burrows is playing with two fractured toes, but that hasn't stopped him from flopping in front of shots for the NHL's top-ranked penalty-killing unit.

NY Philharmonic plays `My Fair Lady' 
AP via Yahoo! News - Jan 10 10:35 AM
The New York Philharmonic will present Kelsey Grammer as Professor Henry Higgins and Kelli O'Hara as Eliza Doolittle in a semi-staged, concert version of "My Fair Lady."

Storytime, Anime Programs at LCF Library 
La Cañada Valley Sun - Jan 11 2:28 AM
The winter session of free storytime programs at the La Cañada Flintridge Library begins Jan. 16 and runs through April 18. And, for teens, the library offers the LCF Anime Club.

Cricket: Boucher claims world catching record 
AFP via Yahoo! News - 41 minutes ago
South African wicketkeeper Mark Boucher has claimed a world record for Test catches on the first day of the first Test against Pakistan at Centurion Park.

According to CEO of LTDM, Inc. (Living the Dream in Mexico), New Real Estate Finance Product Offers First Time Buyers ... 
[Press Release] Market Wire via Yahoo! Finance - Jan 10 5:15 AM
According to lending executive, Teresa Sanchez-Marlow, being limited to purchase Mexico property with cash only is a thing of the past. "US Citizens can affordably actually own property near the sunny Mexico beaches and enjoy the breathtaking sunsets and the magic that comes with this colorful atmosphere," remarks Sanchez, CEO, LTDM, Inc., a luxury real estate firm based in Puerto Vallarta, ...

New York Post - Jan 11 3:27 AM
Chelsea$1.18 million Bedrooms: 3 Bathrooms: 2 Square feet: 1,500 Maintenance: $2,659 This West 21st Street co-op proves that in real estate the whole can be greater than the sum of its parts. In this case, two townhouse apartments form a "fabulous"...

MSG to broadcast White Plains-Mount Vernon game on Sunday morning 
The Journal News - 5 minutes ago
MSG will tape and air tomorrow's high school boys basketball showdown between White Plains and Mount Vernon. The game will be shown on Sunday at 9 a.m. as the Snapple High School Basketball Game of the Week. It will be rebroadcast at 6 p.m., also on Sunday.

Briny Breezes beach-front trailer park sells out for 500 million dlrs 
AFP via Yahoo! News - Jan 10 2:21 PM
Briny Breezes, a beach-front trailer park in Florida's upscale Palm Beach, became a community of millionaires after its 488 residents sold their lots collectively for 500 million dollars to a developer.

Woman helps young cancer patients cope with hair loss 
Detroit News - Jan 10 11:23 PM
When 17-year-old Emily Stubbings lost her hair while going through treatment for leukemia, her bald head prompted kids at her Frasier high school to stare, point their fingers and whisper.

Teenagers abducted by shop employee rescued 
IANS via Yahoo! India News - 2 hours, 51 minutes ago
Rampur (Uttar Pradesh), Jan 11 (IANS) Two teenagers abducted from near the Indian capital by an employee of a neighbourhood shop have been freed by police in Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh.

EBONY AND JET DROPS “N” WORD: African American publisher giants have had enough. 
Eurweb - Jan 10 12:05 AM
*No longer will Ebony or Jet print the controversial “N” word in their publications. The word has been the center of debate in recent years and has even resulted in a national bestseller entitled with the word. But now enough is enough.

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- Beatiful Skin

Here is an article on Skin.

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For alternate Beatuiful Skin meanings see skin (disambiguation).

In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary Beuatiful Skin system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and Beauiful Skin organs. As the interface with the surroundings, it plays Beautifu Skin the most important role in protecting against pathogens. Its other main functions Bautiful Skin are insulation and temperature regulation, sensation and vitamin D and Beautuful Skin B synthesis. Skin is considered one of the most important parts of the body.

Skin has pigmentation, or melanin, Beautifil Skin provided by melanocytes, which absorb some of the potentially dangerous Beautiul Skin ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. It also contains DNA repair enzymes which Baeutiful Skin help to reverse UV damage, and people who lack the genes Beaautiful Skin for these enzymes suffer high rates of skin cancer. One form predominantly produced by UV light, Beaitiful Skin malignant melanoma, is particularly invasive, causing it Beauttiful Skin to spread quickly, and can often be deadly. Human skin pigmentation varies among populations in a striking manner. This has sometimes led to the classification of people(s) on the basis of skin color.

Mammalian skin often contains hairs, which in sufficient density is called fur. The hair mainly serves to augment the insulation the skin provides, but can also serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. On some animals the skin is very hard and thick, and can be processed to create leather. Reptiles and fish have hard protective scales on their skin for protection, and birds have hard feathers, all made of tough β-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier to passage of chemicals and is often subject to osmosis. A frog sitting in an anesthetic solution will quickly go to sleep.

Damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue, often giving rise to discoloration and depigmentation of the skin.

The skin is often known as "the largest organ of the human body". This applies to exterior surface, as it covers the body, appearing to have the largest surface area of all the organs. Moreover, it applies to weight, as it weighs more than any single internal organ, accounting for about 15 percent of body weight. For the average adult human, the skin has a surface area of between 1.5-2.0 square meters, most of it is between 2-3 mm thick. The average square inch of skin holds 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes, and more than a thousand nerve endings.

The use of natural or synthetic cosmetics to treat the appearance of the face and condition of the skin (such as pore control and black head cleansing) is common among many cultures.


  • 1 Layers
  • 2 Variability in skin tone
  • 3 Functions
  • 4 Hygiene
  • 5 Aging
  • 6 Disease
  • 7 Animal skin products
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References


Diagram of the layers of human skin

Skin is composed of three primary layers: the epidermis, which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection; the dermis, which serves as a location for the appendages of skin; and the hypodermis (subcutaneous adipose layer), which is called the basement membrane.

The outermost epidermis consists of stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying connective tissue section, or dermis, and a hypodermis, or basement membrane. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and cells in the deepest layers are nourished by diffusion from blood capillaries extending to the upper layers of the dermis. The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also present. The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata (beginning with the outermost layer): corneum, lucidum(only in feet), granulosum, spinosum, basale. Cells are formed through mitosis at the basale layer. The daughter cells, (see cell division) move up the strata changing shape and composition as they die due to isolation from their blood source. The cytoplasm is released and the protein keratin is inserted. They eventually reach the corneum and slough off (desquamation). This process is called keratinization and takes place within about 30 days. This keratinized layer of skin is responsible for keeping water in the body and keeping other harmful chemicals and pathogens out, making skin a natural barrier to infection.

Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and are linked to an arteriole and a venule. Arterial shunt vessels may bypass the network in ears, the nose and fingertips.

The dermis lies below the epidermis and contains a number of structures including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscle, glands and lymphatic tissue. It consists of loose connective tissue otherwise called areolar connective tissue - collagen, elastin and reticular fibers are present. Erector muscles, or arrectores pilorum attached between the hair papilla and epidermis, can contract, resulting in the hair fibre pulled upright and consequentially the formation of goose bumps. Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands which produce sebum, a mixture of lipids and waxy substances: lubrication, water-proofing, softening and antibactericidal actions are among the many functions of sebum. Sweat glands open up via a duct onto the skin by a pore.

The dermis can be split into the papillary and reticular layers. The papillary layer is outermost and extends into the epidermis to supply it with nutrients. It is composed of loosely arranged fibres. Papillary ridges make up the lines of the hands and feet, producing individually unique fingerprints and foot prints. The reticular layer is more dense and is continuous with the hypodermis. It contains the bulk of the structures (such as sweat glands). The reticular layer is composed of irregularly arranged fibres and resists stretching.

The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. It consists of loose connective tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (the hypodermis contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as padding and insulation for the body.

Microorganisms like Staphylococcus epidermidis colonize the skin surface. These microorganisms serve as ecoorgan. The density of skin flora depends on region of the skin. The disinfected skin surface gets recolonized from bacteria residing in the deeper areas of the hair follicle, gut and urogenital openings.

Variability in skin tone

Individuals with ancestors from different parts of the world have highly visible differences in skin pigmentation. Individuals with African ancestry (black people) tend towards darker skin, while those of Northern European descent (white people) have paler skin. Between these extremes are individuals of Asian, South-East Asian, Native American, Middle Eastern, Polynesian and Melanesian descent.

African American skin has more variation in color from one part of the body to another then does the skin of other racial groups. Part of this is the result of the variations in the thickness of the skin or different parts of the body. The thicker the skin the more layers of cell with melanin in them, and the darker the color.[1]


  1. Protection: an anatomical barrier between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system
  2. Sensation: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat, cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury; see somatosensory system and touch.
  3. Heat regulation: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heat loss while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat. Erector pili muscles are significant in animals.
  4. Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and impermeable barrier to fluid loss. Loss of this function contributes to the massive fluid loss in burns.
  5. Aesthetics and communication: others see our skin and can assess our mood, physical state and attractiveness.
  6. Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage centre for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D and B by action of UV on certain parts of the skin. This synthesis is linked to pigmentation, with darker skin producing more vitamin B than D, and vice versa.
  7. Excretion: The concentration of urea is 1/130th that of urine. Excretion by sweating is at most a secondary function to temperature regulation.
  8. Absorption: Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide can diffuse into the epidermis in small amounts, some animals using their skin for their sole respiration organ. In addition, medicine can be administered through the skin, by ointments or by means of adhesive patch, such as the nicotine patch or iontophoresis. The skin is an important site of transport in many other organisms.


The skin must be regularly cleaned; unless enough care is taken it will become cracked or inflamed. Unclean skin favors the development of pathogenic organisms - the dead cells that continually slough off of the epidermis mix with the secretions of the sweat and sebaceous glands and the dust found on the skin to form a filthy layer on its surface. If not washed away, the slurry of sweat and sebaceous secretions mixed with dirt and dead skin is decomposed by bacterial flora, producing a foul smell. Functions of the skin are disturbed when it is dirty; it becomes more easily damaged, the release of antibacterial compounds decreases and dirty skin is more prone to develop infections. Cosmetics should be used carefully because these may cause allergic reactions. Each season requires suitable clothing in order to facilitate the evaporation of the sweat. Sunlight, water and air play an important role in keeping the skin healthy.

The skin supports its own ecosystems of microorganisms, including yeasts and bacteria, which cannot be removed by any amount of cleaning. Estimates place the number of individual bacteria on the surface of one square inch of human skin at 50 million though this figure varies greatly over the average 20 feet2 of human skin. Oily surfaces, such as the face, may contain over 500 million bacteria per square inch. Despite these vast quantities, all of the bacteria found on the skin's surface would fit into a volume the size of a pea.[2] In general the microorganisms keep one another in check and are part of a healthy skin. When the balance is disturbed there may be an overgrowth and infection, such as when antibiotics kill microbes, resulting in an overgrowth of yeast. The skin is continuous with the inner epithelial lining of the body at the orifices, each of which supports its own complement of microbes.


For more details on this topic, see ageing.
A typical rash
Skin infected with Scabies

As skin ages, it becomes thinner and more easily damaged. Intensifying this effect is the decreasing ability of skin to heal itself. Skin sagging is caused by the fall in elasticity. Skin also receives less blood flow and lower gland activity.


For more details on this topic, see list of skin diseases.

In medicine, the branch concerned with the skin is called dermatology. The skin is subject to constant attack from without, and so can be afflicted by numerous ailments, such as these:


  • Benign tumors of the skin such as Squamous cell papilloma
  • Skin cancer


  • Rashes
  • Blisters
  • Acne
  • Keratosis pilaris
  • Fungal infections such as athlete's foot
  • Microbial infections.
  • Calcinosis cutis
  • sun burn
  • Keloid

Animal skin products

Main article: Hides

Skins and hides from different animals are used for clothing, bags and other consumer products, usually in the form of leather, but also furs, rawhide, snakeskin and hagfish. Skin can also be used to make products such as gelatin and glue. See also wool.

See also

  • Acid mantle
  • Anthropodermic bibliopegy
  • Callus
  • Cosmetics and cosmetic surgery
  • Cutaneous structure development
  • Dermatology
  • Hair
  • Skin color
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Meissner's corpuscle
  • Nails
  • Pacinian corpuscle
  • Polyphenol antioxidant
  • Sweat


  1. ^ Smith, Wilma and Burns, Catherine. (1999) "Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients." Journal of Pediatric Health Care 13(2):72-8.
  2. ^ Theodor Rosebury. Life on Man: Secker & Warburg, 1969 ISBN 0-670-42793-4
Look up Skin in
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The Simplicity of Skin Care 

ThirdAge - Jan 10 11:20 PM
Most experts say skin condition is based on a simple formula. "About half of skin quality is genetic, and the other half is lifestyle and environmental factors," said Palos Verdes Peninsula [Ca.] cosmetologist Sandy Ormsby. "Healthy skin is beautiful skin.
Student in carrot skin challenge 
BBC News - Jan 10 9:52 AM
A North East student tries to turn her skin orange by eating nothing but carrots for a month.

Using right lotion, soap aids winter skin 
San Antonio Express News - Jan 10 5:49 PM
When it comes to winter health hazards, South Texans aren't likely to suffer from frostbite, snow blindness or hypothermia. But we aren't immune from one particular seasonal plague: dry skin.

Sanex Works with Dance Choreographer Alex Verona to Create Skin Cells Dance Routine 
[Press Release] PR Web via Yahoo! News - Jan 11 3:00 AM
(PRWeb) January 11, 2007 -- Sanex teamed up with Cuban dance choreographer Alex Verona to create dance routines to bring human body 'skin cells' to life, as part of its new pan-European advertising campaign, 'living skin'.