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Hawaii trying to lure Japanese tourists 

AP via Yahoo! News - 1 hour, 28 minutes ago
Hawaii is trying to reverse a downward trend in visits by Japanese tourists, attempting to target more older, more savvy travelers who already may have visited Hawaii at least once.
Japanese Yen Freefall 
Daily FX via Yahoo! Finance - Jan 11 3:43 AM
• Euro Finds Little Relief • Japanese Yen Loses 120 • British Pound Holding Trendline Support • Swiss Franc Blows By 61.8% • Canadian Dollar Ranging • Australian Dollar False Break • New Zealand Dollar Constructive

Japanese school to test chopstick skills 
AP via Yahoo! News - Jan 10 3:35 PM
Students need not apply to one Japanese high school unless they can demonstrate dexterity with a pair of chopsticks.

Clint Eastwood's film makes Japanese minister's day 
Seattle Times - Jan 11 12:12 AM
Akira Amari, a big shot from Tokyo, thinks the world has the Japanese pegged all wrong. The country really isn't trying to metamorphose...

- Beatiful Japanese

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日本(国)
Nippon / Nihon (koku)

Japan
Flag Imperial Seal
Anthem: Kimi ga Yo  (君が代)
Imperial Reign
Capital Tokyo
35°41′N Beutiful Japanese Beatiful Japanese 139°46′E
Most populous conurbation Tokyo1
Official languages Japanese
Government Constitutional monarchy
 - Emperor HIM Emperor Akihito
 - Prime Beautful Japanese Minister Shinzo Abe (LDP)
Formation  
 - National Foundation Day Feb 11, 660 BCE2 
 - Meiji Constitution November 29, 1890 
 - Current constitution May 3, 1947 
 - Treaty of Beauitful Japanese San Francisco April 28, 1952 
Area
 - Total 377,873 km² Beatuiful Japanese (62nd)
145,883 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 0.8%
Population
 - 2005 Beuatiful Japanese estimate 128,085,000 (10th)
 - 2004 census 127,333,002
 - Density 337/km² (20th)
873/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 - Total $4.167 trillion (3rd)
 - Per capita $32,640 (12th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 - Total $4,571 trillion (2nd)
 - Per Beauiful Japanese capita $35,757 (14th)
HDI  (2004) 0.949 (high) (7th)
Currency Yen (¥) (JPY)
Time zone JST (UTC+9)
Internet TLD .jp
Calling code +81
1 Yokohama Beautifu Japanese is the largest incorporated city.
2 Japan was founded on this Bautiful Japanese date by the legendary Emperor Jimmu, first emperor of Beautuful Japanese Japan; it is seen as largely symbolic.

Japan  (Japanese: 日本/日本国 (Nihon or Nippon, officially Beautiul Japanese Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku?) is an island country in East Baeutiful Japanese Asia. Located in Beaautiful Japanese the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of China, Korea, and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to Beaitiful Japanese the East China Sea in the south. The characters that Beauttiful Japanese make up Japan's name literally mean "sun-origin," thus Japan is sometimes identified as the "Land of japanese japanese girls the Rising Sun," derived from the country's eastward position relative to China. Its capital and largest city is Tokyo.

Over 3,000 japanese girl islands, the largest of which are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, and Shikoku, make japanese anime up the nation of Japan. Most of the islands are mountainous, and many are volcanic including japanese models the highest peak, Mount Fuji. Japan has the world's 10th japanese women largest population, with about 128 million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, with over 30 million residents, is the largest japanese animation metropolitan area in the world.

Archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of japanese manga Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. japanese beauties The first written mention of Japan begins with brief appearances in Chinese japanese culture history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from the outside world followed by long periods of japanese babes isolation characterize Japan's history. Thus, its japanese symbols culture today is a mixture of outside influences and internal developments. Since adopting its constitution on May 3, turning japanese 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament, the japanese art Diet, which is one of japanese dragon the oldest legislative bodies in Asia.

Japan is an economic great power with the world's second largest japanese music economy (by nominal GDP). It is also the world's largest international creditor and the sixth largest exporter and learn japanese importer and a member of the japanese dictionary United Nations, G8, and APEC.

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Early busty japanese History
    • 1.2 Feudal era
    • 1.3 Modern japanese names Japan
  • 2 Government and politics
    • 2.1 Foreign relations
    • 2.2 Military
  • 3 Administrative japanese alphabet divisions
  • 4 Geography and climate
  • 5 Economy
  • 6 Science japanese translator japanese tattoos and technology
  • 7 Demographics
  • 8 Culture
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 External japanese food links
  • 12 Further reading

History

Main article: History of Japan

Early History

A Middle japanese writing Jomon vessel (3000 to 2000 BC)

The first japanese idols signs of civilization on the Japanese Archipelago appeared around 10,000 BC with the japanese maple Jomon culture, characterized by a mesolithic to neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer lifestyle of pit dwelling and a rudimentary form japanese internment camps of agriculture. Weaving was still japanese cartoons unknown and clothes were often made of bark. The Jomon people made decorated clay vessels, japanese gardens however, often with plaited patterns. Some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world may be found japanese techno mp3 in Japan.[1]

The Yayoi period, starting around the 3rd century BC, japanese techno songs marked the influx of new practices such as wet-rice farming, iron and bronze-making, and a japanese sandstorm remix new style of pottery, brought by migrants from japanese characters the Chinese mainland and the Korean peninsula. With japanese av the development of Yayoi culture, a predominantly agricultural society emerged on the Japanese archipelago.[2][3][4]

The Japanese japanese tattoo first appear in written history in 57 AD, in China's japanese language Book of Later Han, as "the people of Wa, formed from more than one hundred tribes." According japanese beetle to China's Book of Wei, japanese flag the most powerful kingdom in 3rd century Japan was called Yamataikoku, which was ruled sandstorm japanese remix by the legendary Queen Himiko.

The Kofun period, from the 3rd century to the 7th century, saw the establishment of a dominant polity centered in japanese snack the Yamato area whence arose the Japanese imperial lineage.

In the 6th english to japanese century, the japanese translation Korean kingdom of Baekje introduced Buddhism to Japan, and it was promoted by the ruling class. japanese snacks Prince Shōtoku devoted his efforts to the spread of Buddhism and Chinese culture and japanese beetles is credited with bringing relative peace to Japan through the proclamation of the Seventeen-article constitution.

The Great japanese skirt Buddha at Tōdaiji, Nara, originally cast in 752

Starting with study japanese the Taika Reform Edicts of 645, the Yamato court intensified japanese words the adoption of Chinese cultural practices and reorganized japanese buffet the government and the penal code based on the Chinese administrative structure of japanese t-shirt the time.[5] This paved the way for the dominance of Confucian philosophy in japanese cartoon Japan until the 19th century. This period also saw the first japanese cherry blossom use of the word Nihon (日本?) as a name for the emerging state.

The Nara period of japanese chin the 8th century marked the first emergence japanese restaurant of a strong Japanese state, centered around an imperial court in the city of japanese garden Heijō-kyō. The imperial court then moved briefly to Nagaoka, japanese recipes and then to Heian-kyō (now Kyoto).

The beginning of Japanese historical writing culminated in the early 8th century with the massive japanese model chronicles, Kojiki (The Record of Ancient Matters, 712) and Nihonshoki (Chronicles of Japan, 720). According to these sources, Japan japanese woman was founded japanese av idols in the 7th century BC by the ancestral Emperor Jimmu, a direct descendant of the Shinto deity Amaterasu. It is claimed that japanese swords he started a line of emperors that remains unbroken to this traditional japanese music day. However, historians believe the first emperor who actually existed was Emperor Ojin, though japanese clothing the date of his reign is uncertain.

In the Heian period, from japanese supermodels 794 to 1185, a distinctly japanese panties indigenous culture emerged, noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. In the early 11th century, Lady Murasaki wrote the world's oldest surviving novel, japanese idol The Tale of Genji. The japanese geisha Fujiwara clan's regency dominated politics during this period.

Feudal era

The samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga, Japan's first official ambassador to the Americas and Europe, japanese koi in 1615.

Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence of japanese babe a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the rival Taira clan, Minamoto japanese bikini no Yoritomo was appointed Shōgun and established a base of japanese dragon tattoos power in Kamakura near present-day Tokyo. After Yoritomo's japanese supermodel death, another warrior clan, the Hōjō, came to rule as regents for the shoguns. The Kamakura shogunate managed to repel Mongol japanese boy invasions in 1274 and 1281, with assistance from a storm that the Japanese interpreted japanese pantyhose as a kamikaze, or Divine Wind. The Kamakura shogunate japanese baby names lasted another fifty years and was eventually overthrown by Ashikaga Takauji in 1333. The succeeding Ashikaga japanese garden design shogunate failed to manage the feudal warlords — the daimyo japanese cars — and a civil war erupted. The Ōnin War (1467 to 1477) is generally regarded as the onset of the "Warring japanese tattoo art States" or Sengoku period.

During the 16th century, traders and missionaries japanese fashion from Portugal reached Japan for the first time, initiating the japanese english dictionary Nanban ("southern barbarian") period of active commercial and cultural exchange japanese tattoo symbols between Japan and the West. Oda Nobunaga conquered numerous other daimyo by using European technology and firearms, and had almost unified the japanese mini trucks nation when japanese architecture he was assassinated in 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeded Nobunaga and united the nation in 1590. Hideyoshi invaded Korea twice, but was thwarted by Korean japanese ropes and Ming english to japanese translator Chinese forces. Following several defeats and Hideyoshi's death, Japanese troops were withdrawn in 1597.

One of Japan's Red japanese flowers seal ships (1634), which were used for trade throughout Asia.

After Hideyoshi's death, Tokugawa Ieyasu utilized his position as the regent of Hideyoshi's son japanese t-shirts Toyotomi Hideyori as well as the conflicts among japanese garden bench loyalists of the Toyotomi clan, to gain the support of warlords. japanese dragons When open war broke out, he defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu was japanese movies appointed shōgun in 1603 and established japanese swimsuits the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo).

After defeating Toyotomi clan, at the japanese av stars Siege of Osaka in 1614 and 1615, the Tokugawa clan became the rulers of Japan, setting japanese phrases up a centralized feudal system. The Tokugawa shogunate enacted a variety japanese beautiful model of measures to control the daimyo, among them the sankin-kōtai policy of enforced rotation between fiefs and attendance in Edo. In 1639, the japanese tattoo designs shogunate began the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") japanese sharking policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known japanese furniture as the Edo period. This is often considered to be the japanese to english translator height of Japan's medieval culture. The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued during this period japanese game shows through contacts with the Dutch enclave japanese men at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku. Literally translated, this means "Japanese studies," though it more correctly japanese kanji is represented by the study of native Japan by the Japanese themselves.[6]

Modern Japan

Samurai of the Satsuma authentic japanese swords clan, during the Boshin War period, circa 1867 japanese drifting - Photograph by Felice Beato.

On March 31, 1854, Commodore japanese game show Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan english japanese dictionary to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa. The Boshin War of 1867-1868 led to the resignation of the shogunate, japanese people and the japanese maples Meiji Restoration established a government centered around the emperor. Japan adopted numerous Western japanese school institutions, including a modern government, legal system, and military. A parliamentary system modeled after the British parliament japanese toilet was introduced, with Ito Hirobumi as the first Prime Minister in 1882.

The Meiji japanese breasts era reforms helped transform the Empire of Japan into japanese masks a world power that embarked on a number of military conflicts to increase access to natural resources, with victories japanese soaking tub in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), animation japanese which was the first time that an Asian country defeated an japanese maple tree European imperial power. By 1910, Japan controlled Korea, and the southern half of Sakhalin.

The early 20th century saw a brief period of "Taisho democracy" japanese mythology overshadowed by the rise of japanese to english Japanese expansionism and militarization. World War I enabled Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to expand its influence japanese dragon art and territorial holdings. Japan continued japanese nurse its expansionist policy by occupying Manchuria in 1931. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with translate english to japanese Nazi Germany, later joining the Axis Powers in 1941.

In 1937, Japan invaded other japanese interior design parts of China, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). As a simple and clean japanese result of its aggression, the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. On December japanese hair cutting shears 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States naval base in Pearl Harbor and declared war on japanese to english dictionary the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. sakura korean japanese restaurant This brought the United States into the Pacific Theatre of World japanese actress War II, having entered the European Theatre when Germany declared japanese history war.

The 1945 atomic bombing japanese kimono of Nagasaki

During the course of the Pacific War, Japanese forces in occupied territory were neutralized. Strategic bombing of major cities like Tokyo and japanese translations Osaka killed thousands of civilians. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in japanese shears 1945, Japan agreed japanese tv to an unconditional surrender.[7] The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed on September 2, 1945 (V-J japanese tv game shows Day). The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (on May 3, 1946) japanese internment was convened to prosecute Japanese leaders for crimes against peace and humanity. Emperor Hirohito received immunity from prosecution japanese pop music and retained his position as emperor.

The war cost Japan millions of lives and left japanese letters much of the country's industry and infrastructure destroyed. In japanese songs 1947, Japan adopted a new pacifist japanese boys constitution, seeking international cooperation and emphasizing human rights and democratic practices. Official American occupation lasted until 1952 and Japan was granted japanese tgp membership in the United Nations in 1956. Under a program of aggressive antique japanese swords industrial development and with US assistance, Japan japanese wood working tool achieved spectacular growth to become the second largest economy in the english to japanese translation world, with a growth rate averaging 10% for four decades. This ended in the late 1990s when Japan suffered a major recession from which it has english to japanese dictionary since been japanese beauty slowly recovering.[8]

Government and politics

The Imperial Family of japanese koi tattoo Japan
US President George japanese rope W. Bush speaking to a joint session of the Diet on 19 February 2002
More information japanese symbol dictionary on politics and government of Japan can be found at Politics of Japan, the japanese techno main article in the Politics and government of Japan series.

Japan is a constitutional monarchy, although momotaro japanese restaurant the powers the Emperor (天皇 tennō, literally "heavenly sovereign") wields japanese engines is severely curtailed. He is defined by the Constitution of Japan as "the symbol of the state and of hikari japanese shears the unity of the people". japanese education As a ceremonial figurehead he does not wield even emergency reserve powers. Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister, and other elected japanese vibrator members of the japanese symbol writing Diet. Sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people by the constitution. Although not stated so, the emperor effectively acts as the young japanese head of state on diplomatic occasions. Akihito is the current emperor and japanese vibrators the only reigning emperor in the world.

Japan's legislative organ is its bicameral parliament, the learn japanese language National Diet (Kokkai). The Diet japanese learning consists of a House of Representatives (Lower House or Shūgi-in) containing 480 seats, elected by popular vote every 4 years or when dissolved, japanese massage and a House of Councillors (Upper House or Sangi'in) of 242 japanese painting seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal adult (over 20 years old) japanese customs suffrage, with a secret ballot for all elective offices. The japanese kimonos liberal conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has been in power since 1955, except for a short-lived japanese tv shows coalition government formed from its japanese tea ceremony opposition parties in 1993; the largest opposition party is the liberal-socialist japanese lanterns Democratic Party of Japan.

The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of japanese numbers the title is "Prime Minister of japanese pop the Cabinet". The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its japanese swimsuit members, and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in japanese kogal office. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet of Japan and appoints japanese wooden pony and dismisses the Ministers of learning japanese State, a majority of whom must be Diet members. mature japanese The current Prime Minister of Japan, since September 2006, is Shinzo Abe. Although the Prime Minister of Japan is theoretically very powerful, his position is japanese schools attenuated by the factional nature japanese mistress of Japanese politics and the tendency towards coalition government.

Although historically heavily influenced japanese street fashion by Chinese law, Japanese law developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as japanese decor Kujikata Osadamegaki. However the judicial system of Japan has been largely based on the civil japanese feet law of Europe, notably France and Germany, since the late 19th century. For example, japanese lingerie in 1896 the Japanese government established Minpō, the Civil Code, on the French model. With post-World i think i'm turning japanese War II modifications, the japanese clothes code remains in effect in present-day Japan.[9] Statutory law japanese platform beds originates in Japan's legislature, the National Diet of Japan, with the rubber-stamp approval of the Emperor. Under the current constitution, the japanese fans Emperor may not veto or otherwise refuse to approve a japanese japanese law passed by the Diet. Japan's court japanese toilet cam system is divided into four basic tiers: 438 Summary Courts, one District Court in each prefecture, nine High Courts and the Supreme Court of Japan. There used japanese cars is also one Family japanese animation drawings Court tied to each District Court. The main body of Japanese statutory law is a collection called the Six Codes japanese baseball (六法 roppō).

Foreign relations

Prime Minister japanese nudist Shinzo Abe (right) with US President George W. Bush (center) and japanese prints South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun at the 2006 APEC meeting
Main article: Foreign relations of japanese surveys hawaii Japan

Japan maintains close economic and military relations with its key japanese guys ally the United States; therefore the US-Japan security alliance serves as the japanese mp3 cornerstone of its foreign policy. For example, Japan contributed non-combatant troops to the japanese see through skirt Iraq War with the United States and others. Japan is a member state japanese cartoon art of the United Nations and currently serving as a non-permanent Security Council member. It is also one of the japanese green tea "G4 nations" seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.

Japan is japanese internment camp a member of the G8, the APEC, japanese knotweed the "ASEAN Plus Three", and a participant in the East Asia Summit. japanese rap It is also the world's second-largest donor of official development assistance, donating 0.19% of its GNP in japanese videos 2004.[10] As member of the G8 Japan ancient japanese samurai swords maintains cordial relations with most countries as a key trading partner.

Japan has cute japanese cartoons several territorial disputes with its neighbors. These disputes partly involve the control of marine and natural resources, such as possible reserves of crude oil korean japanese restaurant and natural gas. The japanese autoparts country also has an ongoing dispute with North Korea over its japanese holidays abduction of Japanese citizens and its nuclear weapons and missile programs.

Military

Sailors aboard the JMSDF training vessel JDS Kashima.
Main articles: Japan Self-Defense Forces and Japan free japanese av download Defense Agency

Japan's military is restricted by Article 9 of the Constitution of japanese chicks Japan of 1946, which states that "Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, japanese games the Japanese people forever renounce war japanese houses as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force japanese mature as means of settling international disputes." Thus, Japan's current japanese name meanings constitution prohibits the use of military force to wage war against other countries.

Japan's military is governed by japanese search engines the Ministry of Defense and primarily consists of the japanese birthday invitation Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The military budget of Japan japanese cherry trees is less than one percent of its GDP, though it japanese traditional art is estimated to be the fourth largest in japanese amateur the world at $44.3 billion per year, as of 2005. The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations and the deployment of Japanese troops hello in japanese to Iraq marked japanese festivals the first overseas use of its military since World War II.

Administrative divisions

Main articles: Prefectures of Japan, Cities of Japan, japanese women without pubic hair Towns of Japan, Villages of Japan, and List antique swords japanese of Japanese cities by population
Tokyo
Yokohama
Osaka

Japan has forty-seven prefectures. Each has an elected governor and legislature, and an administrative bureaucracy. While there exist eight commonly defined japanese traditional music regions of Japan, the prefecture is english to japanese alphabet the largest administrative subdivision. The former city of Tokyo is further divided into twenty-three special wards, which have japanese koi fish tattoos the same powers as cities.

The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging samurai japanese restaurant many of the hairy japanese cities, towns, and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number japanese clip art of sub-prefecture administrative regions, and is expected to cut administrative costs.[11]

Japan has dozens of major cities, which play an important role in Japan's japanese lettering culture, heritage and economy. Those in the japanese motorcycle parts list below of the ten most populous are all japanese sakura prefectural capitals and Government Ordinance Cities, except where indicated:

No. City Prefecture Populationcitation needed]
1 Tokyoa   Tokyo 8,390,967
2 Yokohama Kanagawa   3,579,133
3 Osaka Osaka 2,640,097
4 Nagoya Aichi 2,214,958
5 Sapporo Hokkaidō 1,882,424
6 Kobe Hyōgo 1,525,389
7 Kyoto Kyoto 1,474,764
8 Fukuoka Fukuoka 1,400,621
9 Kawasakib Kanagawa 1,317,862
10 Saitama Saitama 1,185,030

a 23 japanese thumbs municipalities. Also capital of Japan.
b Government Ordinance City only.

Geography and climate

Japan from space, japanese wallpaper May 2003.
Main article: Geography of Japan

Japan is a country of islands which extends along the Pacific coast of Asia. i think im turning japanese The main islands, running from japanese flute north to south, are Hokkaidō, Honshū (the main island), Shikoku and Kyūshū. The Ryūkyū Islands, in south-west Japan, lies in a japanese hornets chain between China and Kyushū. In addition, about 3,000 smaller japanese martial arts islands may be counted in the full extent of the Japanese archipelago. japanese paintings Japan also claims the southern Kuril Islands (controlled by japanese trading companies Russia), which are located to the north-east of Hokkaidō.

Japan is the thirtieth most densely populated country in the world. About japanese cooking 70% to 80% of the country is forested, mountainous,[12][13] and unsuitable for japanese dog names agricultural, industrial, or residential japanese government use, due to the generally steep elevations, climate, and risk of landslides caused japanese sake sets and tea sets by earthquakes, soft ground, and heavy rain. This has resulted in an extremely japanese screens high population density in the habitable zones that are mainly located in coastal areas. japanese animated cartoons Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire, at the juncture of three tectonic plates, gives Japan frequent low-intensity tremors and occasional volcanic activity. japanese cell phone Destructive earthquakes, often resulting japanese homes in tsunamis, occur several times each century. The most recent major quakes are the 2004 Chūetsu Earthquake and the Great Hanshin japanese karate Earthquake of 1995. Hot springs are japanese religion numerous, and have been developed as resorts.

The climate of Japan is japanese twins predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. Japan's geographical features japaneses divide it into six principal climatic zones:

  • Hokkaidō: The northernmost zone has a temperate climate tanpopo japanese restaurant with long, cold winters and cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snow free japanese translation banks in the winter.
  • Sea of Japan: On Honshū's west coast, the northwest wind in the wintertime brings heavy japanese escorts snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though japanese noh masks it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures, due to japanese rifles the Föhn wind phenomenon.
  • Central Highland: A typical inland climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and japanese sword between day and night. Precipitation is light.
  • Seto Inland Sea: The mountains of real japanese swords the Chūgoku hot japanese women and Shikoku regions shelter the region from the seasonal winds, bringing mild weather throughout japanese actresses the year.
Sakura with Mount Fuji (highest point in Japan) and the Bullet Train in the foreground
  • Pacific Ocean: design japanese garden The east coast experiences cold winters japanese culture in malaysia with little snowfall and hot, humid summers due to the southeast seasonal wind.
  • South-west Islands: The japanese diet Ryūkyū Islands have a subtropical climate, japanese food recipes with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during japanese groping, grope the rainy season. Typhoons are common.

The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the stationary rain front responsible for japanese interment camps this gradually works its way north until it dissipates in northern Japan before reaching japanese school uniforms Hokkaidō in late July. In most of Honshū, the japanese with no pubic hair rainy season begins before the middle of ancient japanese weapons June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.

Japan is home to nine forest ecoregions japanese dolls which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests japanese food stores in the Ryūkyū and Bonin islands, to temperate broadleaf and japanese horror mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests japanese money in the japanese swords for sale cold, winter portions of the northern islands.

Economy

The Bank of Japan is the nation's central bank. Shown japanese technology here japanese television shows is its Tokyo headquarters.
Main article: Economy of Japan

Close government-industry cooperation, a strong work the vapors turning japanese ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan traditional japanese become the second largest economy in the world, after the United States, at around US$4.5 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and third after ancient japanese samurai the United States and China if japanese lessons purchasing power parity is used. Japan's service sector accounts for about three-quarters of japanese red maple its total economic output. Banking, insurance, real estate, japanese coins retailing, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries. Japan's industrial strength is among the world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor japanese design vehicles, electronic equipment, japanese floor pillows machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, and processed foods, and japanese fan is home to leading multinational corporations and commercial brands in technology and machinery (see also list of Japanese companies).[14] Construction has japanese girl names long been one of Japan's largest industries, with the help of multi-billion japanese incense dollar government contracts in japanese national anthem the civil sector. Distinguishing characteristics of the Japanese economy include the cooperation of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, and banks in closely-knit groups japanese pics called keiretsu (examples include Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuyo, Mitsui, Dai-Ichi Kangyo and Sanwa), powerful enterprise unions japanese sword dealers and shunto, the guarantee of japanese sword stand lifetime employment (shushin koyo) in big corporations, and highly unionized blue-collar factories. Recently, Japanese companies have begun to abandon japanese swords sites some of these norms in an attempt learn to speak japanese to increase profitability.

The Tokyo Stock Exchange is the second largest in the world with market old japanese sword capitalization of more than US$4 trillion.

In terms of financial sector, it is traditional japanese swords home to the world's largest bank,[15] the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group [16], which has roughly US$1.7 trillion in assets[15] and the world's largest postal savings system and the largest japanese busty holder of personal savings, the Japan Post that holds personal savings that are valued at around japanese car imports US$3.3 trillion. It is home to the world's second largest stock exchange, japanese comics the Tokyo Stock Exchange, with a market capitalization japanese hair straightening of over US$4 trillion as of December 2006.[17]. It's also home to some of the largest financial japanese ladies services companies, business groups and banks. For instance japanese pictures several large keiretsus (business groups) and multinational companies such as Sony, japanese pranks Sumitomo, Mitsubishi and Toyota own billion- and trillion-dollar operating banks, investment groups and/or financial services such as Sumitomo Bank, Fuji Bank, Mitsubishi japanese shrimp sauce Bank, Toyota Financial Services, and japanese symbol Sony Financial Holdings. (see also list of Japanese banks).

From the 1960s to female japanese names the 1980s, overall real economic growth has been called a "miracle": a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, japanese cuisine and a 4% average in the 1980s.[18] Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, japanese rock largely due to the after-effects of over-investment during the late 1980s and domestic policies intended to wring babes japanese speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and japanese foods were further hampered in japanese television 2000 to 2001 by the decceleration of the global economy.[14] However, the economy has shown strong signs of recovery since 2005. GDP growth for that year was 2.8%, with an annualized fourth quarter japanese art manga expansion of 5.5%, surpassing the japanese food store growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.[19] Unlike previous recovery trends, domestic consumption japanese sauces has been the dominant factor of growth.

Because only 29% japanese teas of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation,citation needed] a japanese demons system of terrace farming is used to build in small areas. japanese drums This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area. However, japanese instrumental music Japan's small agricultural sector is also japanese kissing highly subsidized and protected. Japan must import about 50%[20] of its requirements of grain and fodder crops other japanese samurai swords than rice, and relies on imports for most of its supply japanese tatoos of meat. In fishing, Japan is ranked second in the world behind China in tonnage of fish caught. japanese thumbnail photos of av stars Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly turning japanese mp3 15% of the global catch.[14]

Japan has 1,177,278 km of paved roadways, 173 airports, and japanese call girls 23,577 km of railways as japanese herbal tea of 2004.[14] Transportation is highly developed. Air transport is mostly operated by All Nippon japanese maple trees Airways (ANA) and Japan Airlines (JAL). Railways are operated by Japan Railways among japanese swimwear others. There are extensive international flights from many cities and countries to and japanese water garden from Japan.

Japan's main export partners are the United States used japanese engines 22.9%, China 13.4%, South Korea 7.8%, Taiwan 7.3% and Hong Kong 6.1% (for 2005). Japan's main exports are transport equipment, motor vehicles, japanese american internment camps electronics, electrical machinery and chemicals.[14] With very limited japanese lantern plant natural resources to sustain economic development, Japan depends on other nations for most of its raw materials; thus japanese nudists japanese restaurant equipment it imports a wide variety of goods. Its main import partners are China 21%, U.S. 12,7%, Saudi Arabia 5.5%, UAE 4.9%, Australia 4.7%, South japanese snowbell Korea 4.7% and Indonesia 4% (for 2005). Japan's main imports are machinery and japanese white panties equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, japanese big textiles and raw materials for its industries. Overall, Japan's largest trading partner is China.[21]

Science and technology

Main article: japanese fan doll Science and japanese fish technology in Japan
The ASIMO humanoid robot running.

Japan is japanese flour a leading nation in the fields of scientific research, technology, japanese food online machinery, and medical research with the world's third largest budget for research and development at japanese food online store $130 billion,[22] after the United States and China with over japanese holly 677,000 researchers.

Some of Japan's more important technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, machinery, industrial japanese horror movies new releases robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan japanese tiger leads the world in robotics, having produced QRIO, ASIMO, and Aibo, and possesses more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's traditional japanese architecture industrial robots used for manufacturing.[23] It is also home to six of japanese alphabet chart the world's 15 largest automobile manufacturers and is home japanese amateurs to seven of the world 20 japanese av idol largest semiconductor sales leaders.

Japan has also made headway into aerospace research and space exploration. On October 1, 2003, japanese bath three organizations were merged to form the new Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA): Japan's Institute of japanese caligraphy Space and Astronautical Science (or ISAS), the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL), japanese cartoon characters and Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).Before the merger, ISAS was responsible for space and japanese cleyera planetary research, while NAL was focused on aviation japanese desserts research. NASDA, which was founded on October 1, 1969, had developed rockets, japanese inventions satellites, and also built the Japanese Experiment Module, which is slated to be launched and added to the japanese movies and pics International Space Station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2007 and 2008.

Demographics

Main article: japanese name translation Demographics of Japan
Shibuya crossing is japanese race queens one of the largest pedestrian japanese song crossings and shopping areas.

Japan's population is estimated at around 127,463,611.[24] For japanese studies the most part, Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous with only small populations of foreign workers; Zainichi Korean, Japanese Brazilians and others. Japan japanese symbols characters japanese timeline has indigenous minority groups such as the Ainu and Ryūkyūans, and social minority groups like the burakumin.

Japan has one of the highest japanese usenet servers life expectancy in the world, at 81.25 years of age as of 2006.[25] However, mai japanese restaurant the traditional japanese house Japanese population is rapidly aging, the effect of a post-war baby boom followed by a decrease in births in the beautiful japanese models latter part of the 20th century. In 2004, about 19.5% of the population was over the japanese beds age of 65.[26] The changes in the demographic japanese breast structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline japanese fabric in the workforce population and increases in the cost of social security benefits such as the public pension plan. If japanese house its birth and death rates remain at the current levels, Japan's population japanese movies new releases has passed its peak and its population will continue to japanese reality tv decline. It is expected to drop to japanese rope harness 100 million by 2050, and to 64 million by 2100.[26]

Demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope japanese wrestling with this problem.[27] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to sushi time japanese restaurant provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population.[28] Immigration, however, is not popular as recent increased crime turning japanese vapors rates aneka japanese boy are often attributed, both by the National Police Agency and in popular Japanese media, to the East Asian foreigners living in Japan.[29] The World japanese foot lovers Factbook of the CIA estimated 0 migrants per 1000 population as of 2006.[30]

In 2005, Doudou Diene, United japanese pottery Nations Special Rapporteur, said that racism in Japan is "deep and profound" and that japanese traditional clothing the government does not recognise the depth of the problem.[31] [32] Following an investigation lasting nine days, japanese yew Diene concluded that racial discrimination and xenophobia in Japan affects three circles of discriminated groups: national minorities, descendants of former Japanese colonies and pokemon japanese foreigners and migrants from other Asian countries and from the rest of the english words in japanese world.[33] Ethnic issues in Japan are improvingcitation needed], however, so there is a narrow chance that if more japanese english translator foreigners enter the country, japanese hairstyles and decide to marry another foreigner or Japanese resident, this may increase the chance of the population growing again. It is japanese idol gallery also noted that many Japanese youth are increasingly preferring not to marry or japanese nesting dolls have families as adults.[27]

Language

Main article: japanese new year Japanese language

About 99% of the population speaks Japanese as their first language.citation needed] The japanese underwear Ryūkyūan languages, also part of the Japonic life in japanese internment camps language family to which Japanese belongs, are spoken in Okinawa, but few children learn these languages. Ainu, the language of the indigenous minority animation of japanese cartoons in northern Japan, is moribund, drawings of japanese cherry blossoms with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaidō. Most public and private schools require students to take japanese canopy tents courses in both Japanese and English.

The Japanese japanese stringed instrument language is an agglutinative language distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting japanese yen the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary which indicate the relative status of av japanese speaker and listener.

Japanese incorporates many foreign elements. Japanese has borrowed or derived large amounts of vocabulary from Chinese. When japanese antiques non-Chinese foreign words are written in japanese bath house Japanese, they are usually done so in a separate alphabet called katakana. Since the end of japanese currency World War II, Japanese has japanese drawings also extensively borrowed from English. The writing system uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on simplified forms of japanese sailor suit Chinese characters), as well as the Roman alphabet and Arabic japanese tosa numerals.

Religion

The "floating" torii at Itsukushima Shrine.
Main article: Religion in Japan

Around 84% of Japanese people profess to believe both Shinto (the japanese zen gardens indigenous religion of Japan) and Buddhism.[24] Buddhism, Taoism college japanese major and Confucianism from China have significantly influenced Japanese beliefs and mythology. Religion in Japan japanese animation wallpaper tends to be syncretic in nature, and this results japanese buildings in a variety of practices, such as parents and children japanese dinnerware celebrating Shinto rituals, students praying before exams, couples holding a wedding at a Christian church and funerals being held at Buddhist temples. A japanese free gallery minority (0.7%) profess to Christianity[24] and other religions (4.7%) like shamanism, Islam, and Hinduism.citation needed] Since the mid-19th century, japanese symbol for love numerous religious sects (Shinshūkyō) have emerged.

Education

Main article: Education in Japan

Compulsory education was introduced japanese to english translation into Japan in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration.citation needed] Since 1947, compulsory education consists japanese jesus christ superstar of elementary school and middle school, which lasts for 9 years (from japanese porcelain age 6 to age 15).citation how to speak japanese needed] Almost all childrencitation needed] continue their education japanese bedding at a three-year senior high school, and, according to basic statics of MEXT, 67.5% of high school japanese beetle traps graduatescitation needed] attend a university, junior college, trade school, japanese car parts or other post-secondary institution in 2006. Japan's education is japanese male models very competitivecitation needed] especially japanese poetry at the college level and it has prestigiouscitation needed] and large universities such as University of japanese traditions Tokyo, University of Tohoku, Keio University, Waseda University, Kyoto University, Hitotsubashi University, and japanese wedding Doshisha University.

Health

Main article: Health care in Japan

In Japan, healthcare services are provided by national and local japanese bronze mirror governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal japanese dvd health care insurance system that provides relative equality of japanese gifts access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers japanese interracial can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been japanese knives covered by government-sponsored insurance.citation needed] Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice.

Culture

Main article: japanese translater Culture of Japan
A traditional Japanese amateur japanese dancer.

Japanese culture has evolved greatly over the draw japanese cartoons years, from the country's original Jomon culture to its contemporary hybrid culture, which combines influences japanese bikini models from Asia, Europe, and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts (ikebana, origami, ukiyo-e, dolls, lacquerware, pottery), performances (bunraku, dance, japanese dogs kabuki, noh, rakugo), traditions japanese family (games, tea ceremony, budō, architecture, gardens, swords), and cuisine.

Post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European culture which has led to the evolution japanese giantess of popular band music (called J-Pop). The japanese tractors fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation of manga, a typically card japanese single yugioh Japanese comic book format that is now popular within and outside Japan. Manga-influenced care of a japanese maple animation for television and film is called anime. Japanese-made video game consoles have prospered since cross stitch designs  japanese the 1980s.

Literature

Main article: Japanese literature

The earliest works include two history books the Kojiki and i'm turning japanese the Nihon Shoki, and a poetry japanese cherry tree book Man'yōshū in the eighth century, all written in Chinese characters. In the japanese chin dog early days of the Heian period, the system of transcription known as kana (Hiragana and japanese cold sake glasses Katakana) was created as phonograms. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is japanese family names considered the oldest Japanese narrative.[34] An account of Heian court life is given by The Pillow japanese migration to australia Book, written by Sei Shōnagon while The Tale japanese myths of Genji by Lady Murasaki is sometimes japanese name generator called the world's first novel.

During the Edo Period, literature became not so much the field of the samurai aristocracy japanese news as that of the chōnin, the ordinary people. Yomihon, for example, became popular and japanese satellite tv reveals this profound change in the readership and japanese sayings authorship.[34]

The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms, japanese american history during which Japanese literature integrated western influences. Natsume Soseki and Mori Ogai were the japanese cat names first "modern" novelists of Japan, followed by Akutagawa Ryunosuke, Tanizaki Junichiro, Kawabata japanese crane Yasunari, Mishima Yukio, and more recently, Murakami Haruki. Japan has two Nobel prize winning authors — Kawabata Yasunari (1968) and Oe Kenzaburo (1994).[34]

Music

Main article: Music of Japan

Japanese music is eclectic, japanese groping having borrowed instruments, scales and styles from neighboring cultures. Many instruments, such japanese magnolia as the koto, were introduced in the ninth and tenth centuries. The accompanied recitative of the japanese man Noh drama dates from the fourteenth century and the popular folk music, with the japanese miko guitarlike shamisen, from the 16th.[35]

Western music, introduced in japanese mothers the late nineteenth century, now forms an integral japanese society part of the culture, as evident from the profusion of J-Pop artists. Modern Japanese music japanese surnames uses western instruments, scales and style.

Cuisine

Main article: Japanese cuisine

A basic, traditional Japanese meal consists of white japanese temples Japanese rice with accompanying tsukemono pickles as appetizers; a bowl japanese toys of miso soup;selected or combined seafood, meat, egg, and japanese traditional vegetable dishes known as okazu; and green tea. In a traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, the okazu may be a grilled fish. japanese twinks Foods, beverages, and condiments from Japan, such as japanese weapons sushi, sashimi, ramen, sake, wasabi, sukiyaki and teriyaki are recognized worldwide.

Sports and recreation

Sumo, a traditional Japanese sport.
Main article: Sport pretty japanese girls in Japan

Traditionally, Sumo is sometimes considered Japan's national turning japanese the vapors sport and is one of its most popular.citation needed] Between mid-18th and early 19th century, japanese animals various Japan's martial art masters developed several sports that exhibited both martial arts abilities as well japanese artwork as combative competition. These japanese cities included judō, karate and kendō.

After the Meiji Restoration, many western sports were introduced and japanese comic began to spread through the education system. These sports were initially stressed as a form japanese drama of mental discipline, but Japanese have now come to japanese economy enjoy them as recreational activities.

Baseball is the most popular ball game in Japan - the professional baseball league in Japan was established in japanese english translation 1936.[36] One of the most famous Japanese japanese housewife players in North American major league baseball is Suzuki Ichiro, who won three MVP Award for three consecutive years of 1994, 1995 and 1996. Concerning football, the professional soccer league in Japan was established in 1992. Japan was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004, and Japan co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Golf is popular in Japan, as is auto racing, the Super GT sports car series and Formula Nippon formula racing.

Each year, Japan observes the second Monday in October as Health and Sports Day. The date, originally October 10, commemorates the opening day of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Other major sporting events that Japan has hosted include the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano.

See also

Japan topics edit
History Paleolithic, Jomon, Yayoi, Yamato, Nara, Heian, Kamakura, Muromachi, Azuchi-Momoyama, Edo, Meiji, Taisho, Showa, Heisei
Government
& politics
Emperor (list), Prime Minister (list), Cabinet, Ministries, Diet, House of Councillors, House of Representatives, Judiciary, Elections, Political parties, Fiscal policy, Foreign policy, Foreign relations, Human rights, Military,
Geography Environment, Regions, Prefectures, Cities, Districts, Towns, Villages, Addresses, Islands, Lakes, Rivers
Economy Primary sector, Manufacturing, Labor, Communications, Transportation, Currency, Central bank
Culture Anime & Manga, Architecture, Art, Bonsai, Cuisine, Festivals, Gardens, Geisha, Go Game, Ikebana, Onsen & Sento, Literature, Mythology, Music, Tea ceremony, Theatre
Society Demographics, Crime, Education, Etiquette, Language, Law, Mythology, Religion, Sports, Values
Japan Portal
Find more information on Japan by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

  • Wikimedia Atlas of Japan , holding maps.

Notes

  1. ^ Pottery in Japan:
    • "The earliest known pottery comes from Japan, and is dated to about 10,500 BC. China and Indo-China follow shortly afterwards" ("Past Worlds" The Times Atlas of Archeology (1995). p. 100).
    • "That end of the Ice Age was accompanied by the first of the two most decisive changes in Japanese history: the invention of pottery. In the usual experience of archaeologists, inventions flow from mainlands to islands, and small peripheral societies aren't supposed to contribute revolutionary advances to the rest of the world. It therefore astonished archaeologists to discover that the world's oldest known pottery was made in Japan 12,700 years ago." Diamond, Jared. Japanese Roots. DISCOVER Vol. 19 No. 6 (June 1998)
    • "Japan, however, was the seat of the earliest known development of ceramics" (The History and Geography of Human Genes, p. 249, Cavalli-Sforza ISBN 0-691-08750-4.
    • Alternatively, the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History notes "Carbon-14 testing of the earliest known shards has yielded a production date of about 10,500 B.C., but because this date falls outside the known chronology of pottery development elsewhere in the world, such an early date is not generally accepted". "Japan, 8000–2000 B.C." In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2000)
  2. ^ The Yayoi period (c. 250 BC–c. AD 250). Encyclopædia Britannica (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  3. ^ Diamond, Jared. "Japanese Roots", Discover Magazine Vol. 19 No. 6 (June 1998). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  4. ^ Pottery. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  5. ^ This is in reference to the Ritsuryō
  6. ^ Hooker, Richard (1999-07-14). Japan Glossary; Kokugaku. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  7. ^ Japanese Instrument of Surrender. educationworld.net. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  8. ^ Japan scraps zero interest rates. BBC News (2006-07-14). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  9. ^ "Japanese Civil Code". Encyclopædia Britannica (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  10. ^ Table: Net Official Development Assistance In 2004 (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005-04-11). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.PDF
  11. ^ Mabuchi, Masaru (May 2001). Municipal Amalgamation in Japan (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  12. ^ "Japan". Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  13. ^ Japan Information - Page 1. WorldInfoZone.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  14. ^ a b c d e World Factbook; Japan - Economy. CIA (2006-12-19). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  15. ^ a b Consolidated financial information (PDF). Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Inc. (2006-07-31). Retrieved on 2006-12-29.
  16. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A54352-2004Jul16.html]
  17. ^ Market data. Tokyo Stock Exchange (2006-12-28). Retrieved on 2006-12-29.
  18. ^ Japan: Patterns of Development. country-data.com (January 1994). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  19. ^ Masake, Hisane. A farewell to zero. Asia Times Online (2006-03-02). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  20. ^ Japan Immigration Work Permits and Visas: About Japan. Skillclear.co.uk. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  21. ^ Blustein, Paul. "China Passes U.S. In Trade With Japan: 2004 Figures Show Asian Giant's Muscle". The Washington Post (2005-01-27). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  22. ^ McDonald, Joe. OECD: China to spend $136 billion on R&D. BusinessWeek (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  23. ^ The Boom in Robot Investment Continues – 900,000 Industrial Robots by 2003. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Press release 2000-10-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  24. ^ a b c World Factbook; Japan - People. CIA (2006-12-19). Retrieved on 2007-1-5.
  25. ^ The World Factbook: Rank order - Life expectancy at birth. CIA (2006-12-19). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  26. ^ a b Statistical Handbook of Japan: Chapter 2 - Population. Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  27. ^ a b Ogawa, Naohiro."Demographic Trends and Their Implications for Japan's Future". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Transcript of speech delieved on (7 March 1997). Retrieved on 14 May 2006.
  28. ^ Japan Immigration Policy Institute: Director's message. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  29. ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department report, 2003 (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  30. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Japan, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-1-07.
  31. ^ Press Conference by Mr. Doudou Diene, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  32. ^ "Japan racism 'deep and profound". BBC News (2005-07-11). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  33. ^ 'Overcoming "Marginalization" and "Invisibility"', International Movement against all forms of Discrimination and Racism. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  34. ^ a b c Windows on Asia - Literature : Antiquity to Middle Ages: Recent Past. Michigan State University, Office of International Studies and Programs. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  35. ^ The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, 1983 edition, © Columbia University Press ISBN 0-380-63396-5
  36. ^ Nagata, Yoichi and Holway, John B. (1995). “Japanese Baseball”, Pete Palmer: Total Baseball, Fourth Edition, New York: Viking Press, 547. 

External links

Official
  • Kantei.go.jp - Official prime ministerial and cabinet site
  • Kunaicho.go.jp - Official site of the Imperial family.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Detailed papers on Japan's foreign policy, education programs, culture and life.
  • Shugi-in.go.jp - Official site of the House of Representatives
  • National Diet Library (English)
Media
  • NHK Online
  • Kyodo News
  • News1 Japan historic and current photo archive
  • Asahi Shimbun (English)
  • The Japan Times
Tourism
  • Japan National Tourist Organization
  • Japan travel guide from Wikitravel
Other
  • CIA World Factbook - Japan
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica's Japan portal site
  • Guardian Unlimited - Special Report: Japan



Further reading

  • Barry, Dave Barry Does Japan, Ballantine, 1993 (ISBN 0-449-90810-0)
  • The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, Cambridge University Press, 1993 (ISBN 0-521-40352-9)
  • De Mente, The Japanese Have a Word For It, McGraw-Hill, 1997 (ISBN 0-8442-8316-9)
  • Henshall, A History of Japan, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001 (ISBN 0-312-23370-1)
  • Jansen, The Making of Modern Japan, Belknap, 2000 (ISBN 0-674-00334-9)
  • Japan At A Glance, Kodansha, 1998 (ISBN 4-7700-2080-5)
  • Johnson, Japan: Who Governs?, W.W. Norton, 1996 (ISBN 0-393-31450-2)
  • Klar, My Mother is a Tractor, Trafford Publishing, 2005 (ISBN 1-4120-4897-4)
  • Lonely Planet Japan, Lonely Planet Publications, 2003 (ISBN 1-74059-162-3)
  • Reischauer, Japan: The Story of a Nation, McGraw-Hill, 1989 (ISBN 0-07-557074-2)
  • Sugimoto et al., An Introduction to Japanese Society, Cambridge University Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-521-52925-5)
  • Totman, A History of Modern Japan, 2d ed., Blackwell, 2005 (ISBN 1-4051-2359-1)
  • Van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Vintage, 1990 (ISBN 0-679-72802-3)

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